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Childhood Denied Indian residential schools and their legacy

Un groupe de garçons en pyjamas agenouillés sur des lits simples, la tête baissée et les mains jointes comme s’ils priaient. Une femme est debout dans la chambre et a aussi les mains jointes.

Photo: Yukon Archives, Anglican Church, Diocese of Yukon fonds, 86/61 #678

Story details

From the 1880s to the 1990s, over 150,000 First Nations, Inuit and Métis children were torn from their families and sent to Indian residential schools, often located far from their homes. Many students suffered neglect and abuse. Thousands of children died.

More than 100 Indian residential schools were established across Canada, in every province and territory, except New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island.The Government of Canada used the schools, run by Catholic and Protestant churches, to remove children from the influence of their families and communities, language, culture and beliefs.

Boys in the assembly hall of the Alberni Indian Residential School, British Columbia, ca. 1960.

(Photo: United Church Archives, Toronto. 93.049P/432)

The system of federally supported schools was created to destroy Indigenous families, communities and ways of life, and to assimilate Indigenous children into European culture. As a result, for more than 100 years in Canada, First Nations, Métis and Inuit children were deprived of the love and attention of their families.

Assimilation and loss of identity

Many residential schools did not allow contact between children and their families. Others allowed occasional visits. As soon as Indigenous children were placed in Indian residential schools, they were forced to adopt the customs, language and culture of European society. School officials removed any personal or family items that children brought to the school. Children could not wear their own clothes. They were forbidden to speak their own Indigenous languages. Children were not allowed to keep their hair long, even though long braided hair carries cultural significance for many Indigenous people. The students were completely removed from their familiar way of life.

I want to get rid of the Indian problem… Our objective is to continue until there is not a single Indian in Canada that has not been absorbed into the body politic.

Duncan Campbell Scott, Deputy Superintendent of Indian Affairs, 1913–1932

Thomas Moore Keesick at the Regina Indian Industrial School. (Photo : Saskatchewan Archives Board, R-A8223-1 [left], R-A8223-2 [right])

The legacy of residential schools

The film Childhood Denied: Indian Residential Schools and Their Legacy includes survivors speaking about Indian residential schools, the 60s scoop and the child welfare system. In the 1960s, Canada's child welfare system continued to intervene in the lives of Indigenous families, by removing Indigenous children and placing them in non-Indigenous homes. Indigenous children are still far more likely to be placed in foster or institutional care than other Canadian children.

The reason I wanted to tell my story was because our young people need to know…it needs to be told over and over and over again, so that they understand why we are the way we are. It’s going to take a lot of generations to be whole and healthy again.

Mary Courchene

Video:

Mary Courchene, a survivor of the residential school system, explains how the trauma of the schools has affected generations of her people. (Video footage courtesy of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada)

Survivors speak out

Years of work by survivors speaking about their experiences brought increased recognition of what happened at Indian residential schools. The hard work and courage of survivors, communities and Indigenous organizations led to the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement in 2006. This settlement, between the Government of Canada and school survivors, included provisions for compensation and for the establishment of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. The Commission’s mandate included documenting and preserving the experience of survivors. 

The Government of Canada apology

On Wednesday, June 11, 2008, Prime Minister Stephen Harper made a Statement of Apology to former students of Indian Residential Schools, on behalf of the Government of Canada. Hundreds of former students, church representatives and Indigenous leaders watched the apology from the House of Commons galleries. An excerpt from that apology is found below:

To the approximately 80,000 living former students, and all family members and communities, the Government of Canada now recognizes that it was wrong to forcibly remove children from their homes and we apologize for having done this. We now recognize that it was wrong to separate children from rich and vibrant cultures and traditions that it created a void in many lives and communities, and we apologize for having done this. We now recognize that, in separating children from their families, we undermined the ability of many to adequately parent their own children and sowed the seeds for generations to follow, and we apologize for having done this. We now recognize that, far too often, these institutions gave rise to abuse or neglect and were inadequately controlled, and we apologize for failing to protect you. Not only did you suffer these abuses as children, but as you became parents, you were powerless to protect your own children from suffering the same experience, and for this we are sorry.

The burden of this experience has been on your shoulders for far too long. The burden is properly ours as a Government, and as a country. There is no place in Canada for the attitudes that inspired the Indian Residential Schools system to ever prevail again. You have been working on recovering from this experience for a long time and in a very real sense, we are now joining you on this journey. The Government of Canada sincerely apologizes and asks the forgiveness of the Aboriginal peoples of this country for failing them so profoundly.

Nous le regrettons
We are sorry
Nimitataynan
Niminchinowesamin
Mamiattugut

- The Right Honourable Stephen Harper, Prime Minister of Canada

Honouring the truth

The Truth and Reconciliation Commission spent six years travelling across the country to uncover the truth of the residential school system. At national events, community hearings, forums and dialogues, the Commission heard from Indigenous people who had been taken from their families and spent much of their childhood in residential schools.

Commissioners (left to right) Chief Wilton Littlechild, Senator Murray Sinclair and Dr. Marie Wilson listen to testimony in 2011. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada enabled survivors to tell their stories and expose the facts about residential schools.

(Photo: The Canadian Press, Andrew Vaughan)

In 2015, the Commission released its final report. The report concluded that Canada committed cultural genocide, attempting to destroy structures and practices that identified Indigenous people as a group. In order to prevent cultural values and traditions from being passed down from one generation to the next, the schools forbade spiritual practices, banned the use of Indigenous languages and disrupted families by moving children to schools located far away from their home communities. 

Survivors of residential schools carry trauma. But the trauma is also intergenerational. When caregivers of children are hurt by a genocidal system, the trauma is passed on to that child.

Stewart Phillip, Grand Chief of the Union of British Columbia Indian Chiefs

Residential school survivor Chief William Walker listens to speakers during the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada British Columbia National Event in Vancouver, B.C.

(Photo: The Canadian Press, Darryl Dyck)

Moving forward with reconciliation

The Truth and Reconciliation Commission documented the truth of Indian residential schools, but it also focused on reconciling for the future. To the Commission, reconciliation is about establishing and maintaining a mutually respectful relationship between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in Canada.

Marcel Petiquay arrived at Amos Indian Residential School with a suitcase when he was six years old. He donated his suitcase at the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's national event in Quebec, April, 2013.

(Photo: National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation Archives, PHQNE_01288)

The Commission identifies four things that must occur for reconciliation to happen:

  • awareness of the past,
  • acknowledgement of the harm that has been inflicted,
  • atonement for the causes,
  • action to change behaviour.

The Commission made 94 calls to action in order to redress the legacy of residential schools and advance the process of reconciliation in Canada. Some of the calls to action require the participation of governments, educational institutions and museums, but reconciliation can also start with smaller actions.

Ry Moran, Director of the National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation located in Winnipeg, Manitoba, says that in order to move forward towards reconciliation, there must be better understanding of the rights of Indigenous people. 

Video:

Excerpt from interview with Ry Moran. Video: CMHR, Jessica Sigurdson

Reconciliation is always about relationships. It’s about bringing balance to the relations between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. At an individual level, people often ask, 'What can I do?' My answer to that is always, 'Look at how you believe and how you behave and how you think and change that.'

Senator Murray Sinclair, Chair of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada

Ask yourself:

Do I recognize the wrongs committed at Indian residential schools?

Have I read the 94 calls to action?

What actions can I take to contribute to reconciliation?

Dive Deeper

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By Karine Duhamel, Researcher-Curator, Indigenous Content

Since the publication of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada’s final report in 2015, more and more Canadians seem focused on the idea of reconciliation.

Tags for Why Reconciliation? Why Now?

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Reconciliation: A Movement of Hope or a Movement of Guilt?

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In Why Reconciliation? Why Now? I talked about the idea of reconciliation as an invitation to a new and shared future and as a pathway towards a good life, both for Indigenous people and for other Canadians.

Tags for Reconciliation: A Movement of Hope or a Movement of Guilt?

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Truth and Reconciliation: What’s Next?

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This article series has focused on the way we present Indigenous content within the Museum and how we are approaching reconciliation.

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